Online CPR training has been shown to be as effective or more effective than traditional classroom courses. Here you will find links to third party research we have compiled to support the philosophy of the online education you will receive from ProTrainings.
Problems with traditional CPR training:
Study raises issues with role of instructors in assisting CPR skill practice and evaluating mastery.
The authors evaluated skill levels of trainees (n = 48) who were taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in “American Red Cross: Adult CPR” classes offered at a work site. The evaluation used a validated skill checklist and a Lærdal Skillmeter mannequin to assess trainee competence. Only 1 in 10 of the trainees could correctly perform all 12 CPR skills assessed by the skill checklist. Fewer than 12% of all compressions met published standards, and fewer than 25% of the ventilations met the standards as evaluated by the Skillmeter mannequin. All trainees felt confident they could use their CPR skills in an actual emergency; 64% were “very confident.” Videotape recordings of the practice sessions showed that instructors overlooked many errors in CPR performance and that trainees provided little corrective feedback to one another. The role of instructors in assisting CPR skill practice and in evaluating skill mastery is questioned.
Study finds traditional classroom training for CPR and AED inadequate.
Effectiveness of CPR performance on a manikin was evaluated immediately after training in public CPR classes by trained independent observers using validated measures and procedures. An instrumented manikin was used to assess critical skills thought to be related to survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (compressions and ventilations), applying standards of the American Heart Association. The 226 subjects were enrolled in CPR classes offered to the public by the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association. Fifty percent of subjects performed 2% or fewer compressions correctly (the most common error being insufficient depth), and 50% performed 10% or fewer of ventilations correctly (the most common error being insufficient volume). Sixty-five percent failed to achieve a compression rate of 80 to 100/min. Forty-five percent of subjects failed to open the airway prior to a breathing check, 50% failed to adequately assess breathing, and 53% did not perform an adequate pulse check. Nearly half of all subjects made at least four errors in assessment and sequencing of skills. According to published criteria, trainee performance of CPR is poor. Failure in critical skills may contribute to poor survival rate following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. CPR training programs must be developed with attention to learner outcomes.
In support of video-based online CPR training:
Trial shows video-based CPR course to yield higher retention than classroom course.
Study objective: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a 34-minute video self-instruction (VSI) training program for adult CPR would yield comparable or better CPR performance than the current community standard, the American Heart Association Heartsaver course. Methods: Incoming freshman medical students were randomly assigned to VSI or the Heartsaver CPR course. Two to 6 months after training, we tested subjects to determine their ability to perform CPR in a simulated cardiac arrest setting. Blinded observers used explicit criteria to assess our primary outcome, CPR performance skill. In addition, we assessed secondary outcomes including sequential performance of individual skills, ventilation and chest compression characteristics, and written tests of CPR-related knowledge and attitudes. Results: VSI trainees displayed superior overall performance compared with traditional trainees. Twenty of 47 traditional trainees (43%) were judged not competent in their performance of CPR, compared with only 8 of 42 VSI trainees (19%; absolute difference, 24%; 95% confidence interval, 5% to 42%). Conclusion: In a group of incoming freshman medical students, we found that a half-hour of VSI resulted in superior overall CPR performance compared with that in traditional trainees. If validated by further research, VSI may provide a simple, quick, and inexpensive alternative to traditional CPR instruction for health care workers and, perhaps, the general population.
Video-based CPR course results in better CPR skills than classroom course.
Study objective: Despite the proven efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), only a small fraction of the population knows how to perform it. As a result, rates of bystander CPR and rates of survival from cardiac arrest are low. Bystander CPR is particularly uncommon in the African American community. Successful development of a simplified approach to CPR training could boost rates of bystander CPR and save lives. We conducted the following randomized, controlled study to determine whether video self-instruction (VSI) in CPR results in comparable or better performance than traditional CPR training. Methods: This randomized, controlled trial was conducted among congregational volunteers in an African American church in Atlanta, GA. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 34 minutes of VSI or the 4-hour American Heart Association “Heartsaver” CPR course. Two months after training, blinded observers used explicit criteria to assess CPR performance in a simulated cardiac arrest setting. A recording manikin was used to measure ventilation and chest compression characteristics. Participants also completed a written test of CPR-related knowledge and attitudes. Results: VSI trainees displayed a comparable level of performance to that achieved by traditional trainees. Observers scored 40% of VSI trainees competent or better in performing CPR, compared with only 16% of traditional trainees (absolute difference 24%, 95% confidence interval 8% to 40%). Data from the recording manikin confirmed these observations. VSI trainees and traditional trainees achieved comparable scores on tests of CPR-related knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Thirty-four minutes of VSI can produce CPR of comparable quality to that achieved by traditional training methods. VSI provides a simple, quick, consistent, and inexpensive alternative to traditional CPR instruction, and may be used to extend CPR training to historically underserved populations.
Video-based CPR training found to be effective in older adults.
BACKGROUND: The length of current 4-h classes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a barrier to widespread dissemination of CPR training. The effectiveness of video-based self-instruction (VSI) has been demonstrated in several studies; however, the effectiveness of this method with older adults is not certain. Although older adults are most likely to witness out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, these potential rescuers are underrepresented in traditional classes. We evaluated a VSI program that comprised a 22-min video, an inflatable training manikin, and an audio prompting device with individuals 40-70 years old. The hypotheses were that VSI results in performance of basic CPR skills superior to that of untrained learners and similar to that of learners in Heartsaver classes. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five adults between 40 and 70 years old who had had no CPR training within the past 5 years were assigned to an untrained control group, Heartsaver training, or one of three versions of VSI. Basic CPR skills were measured by instructor assessment and by a sensored manikin. RESULTS: The percentage of subjects who assessed unresponsiveness, called the emergency telephone number 911, provided adequate ventilation, proper hand placement, and adequate compression depth was significantly better (P<0.05) for the VSI groups than for untrained controls. VSI subjects tended to have better overall performance and better ventilation performance than did Heartsaver subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults learned the fundamental skills of CPR with this training program in about half an hour. If properly distributed, this type of training could produce a significant increase in the number of lay responders who can perform CPR.
Computer-based video instruction sufficient to teach CPR/AED skills to high school students.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new instructional methods for teaching high school students cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) knowledge, actions and skills. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-controlled trial of 3 instructional interventions among Seattle area high school students, with random allocation based on classrooms, during 2003-04. We examined two new instructional methods: interactive-computer training and interactive-computer training plus instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and compared them with traditional classroom instruction that included video, teacher demonstration and instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and with a control group. We assessed CPR and AED knowledge, performance of key AED and CPR actions, and essential CPR ventilation and compressions skills 2 days and 2 months after training. All outcomes were transformed to a scale of 0-100%. RESULTS: For all outcome measures mean scores were higher in the instructional groups than in the control group. Two days after training all instructional groups had mean CPR and AED knowledge scores above 75%, with use of the computer program scores were above 80%. Mean scores for key AED actions were above 80% for all groups with training, with hands-on practice enhancing students' positive outcomes for AED pad placement. Students who received hands-on practice more successfully performed CPR actions than those in the computer program only group. In the 2 hands-on practice groups the scores for 3 of the outcomes ranged from 57 to 74%; they were 32 to 54% in the computer only group. For the outcome of continuing CPR until the AED was available scores were high, 89 to 100% in all 3 training groups. Mean CPR skill scores were low in all groups. The highest mean score for successful ventilations was 15% and for compressions, 29%. The pattern of results was similar after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that interactive computer based self instruction alone was sufficient to teach CPR and AED knowledge and AED actions to high school students. All forms of instruction were highly effective in teaching AED use. In contrast to AED skills, CPR remains a set of difficult psychomotor skills that is challenging to teach to high school students as well as other members of the lay public.
In support of CPR training for high school students:
Survey finds that teachers believe CPR training should be provided in high schools.
To determine the best approaches for increasing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training opportunities for public high school students, we conducted a statewide survey of all 310 public high schools in Washington State. The findings describe CPR student training currently provided by high schools, barriers to providing, and strategies to increase CPR training of high school students. The response rate was 89% (276 schools) from a combination of mail and telephone surveys; 35% (n=97) reported that they did not provide any CPR student training. Of the 132 schools that provided CPR student training, 23% trained less than 10% of their students, and 39% trained more than 90% of their students. The majority of public high schools, 70%, did not have any teacher trained to teach CPR or had only one teacher with such training. Yet 80% of schools felt that CPR training is best provided in school settings. Schools perceived the greatest benefit of CPR training as providing students with the skill to save a life (43%). The most frequently identified barriers were logistical: limited time to teach the curriculum (24%), lack of funds (16%), and instructor scheduling difficulties (17%). Less than 5% of respondents voiced any opposition to CPR training, and that opposition was for logistical reasons. To increase CPR training, the single best strategies suggested were: increase funding, provide time in the curriculum, have more certified instructors, and make CPR student training a requirement.
Importance of CPR skill refresher e-mails:
CPR skill deterioration primarily occurs within first year, necessitating refresher training.
In 1979–1980, 950 telephone company personnel were trained and tested at the basic rescuer level on recording manikins. In October 1981, a random group of 40 were retested without warning on the recording manikin. Skills retention was measured by comparing the tapes from training and retesting. Sixteen (40%) of those retested were able to perform effective ventilations and compressions of the manikin with 60% to 70% average retention compared to their training scores. The remaining 24 (60%) had ineffective ventilations or compressions or both. The two groups did not differ in the performance level achieved during training, or in the time interval between training and retesting. Eleven individuals retested at 13 to 14 months did not perform better than those retested later, suggesting the maximum skills deterioration had occurred within the first year. However, the effective performance group on the average were younger, and the majority had first aid training in addition to their CPR training. Only one had CPR retraining. This study supports the following recommendations: 1) lay basic rescuers should be retrained within the first year; 2) further studies of the factors influencing retention are advisable; 3) the younger age groups should be the first priority for citizen CPR training; and 4) because first aid training appears to improve CPR retention, training in both should be encouraged.
Frequent retraining found to be necessary for adequate CPR skill retention.
Objective: To examine the competence of a cohort trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation by the BBC's 999 training roadshows. Design: Descriptive cohort study applying an innovative testing procedure to a nationwide systematic sample. The test sample received an unsolicited home visit and without warning were required to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin while being videoed. The videos were then analysed for effectiveness and safety using the new test. Setting: Nine cities and surrounding areas in the United Kingdom. Subjects: 280 people aged between 11 and 72. Results: Thirty three (12%) trainees were able to perform effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but of these 14 (5%) performed one or more elements in a way that was deemed to be potentially injurious. Thus only 19 (7%) trainees were able at six months to provide safe cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In addition, large numbers of subjects failed to shout for help, effectively assess the status of the patient, or alert an ambulance. Significantly better performances were recorded by those under 45 years old (31 (14%) v 2 (4%) gave effective performances respectively, P<0.05), those who had attended a subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation course (8 (40%) v 25 (10%) gave effective performances respectively, P<0.0001), and those confident in their initial ability (26 (20%) v 7 (6%) gave effective performances respectively, P<0.005). Females were significantly less likely than males to perform procedures in a harmful way (117 (62%) v 10 (12%) performed safely respectively, P<0.005). Conclusion: Television is an effective means of generating large training cohorts. Volunteers will cooperate with unsolicited testing in their home, such testing being a realistic simulation of the stress and lack of forewarning that would surround a real event. Under such conditions the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was disappointing. However, retraining greatly improves performance.